1. SMART targeting
With the smart method, you can be sure that all the goals will be carefully examined. This method also helps you gain a deeper understanding of the goal setting process. Goals set in this way should have the following characteristics:

• Specific: To achieve specific goals, you must answer these questions: What is the goal? Who or who? When? And for what purpose;

• Measurable: Consider a measure that can be used to measure the success of each of the goals;

Achievable: Identify the most important goals you are pursuing and see how you can achieve them;

• Realistic: You must be interested and capable of achieving the set goals;

• Timing: Set a time frame to achieve your goals.

۲. Clear Targeting (CLEAR)
The Clear method is newer than the Smart method and takes into account the speed conditions of today’s businesses. The features of this method are:

• Collaborative: Objectives should be such that employees are encouraged to work together;

• Limited: Objectives must be limited in scope and time to be manageable;

• Emotional: Goals should be such as to stimulate employee enthusiasm. In fact, project executors need to be able to communicate emotionally with the set goals. In this way, the quality of the work done also increases;

• Tangible: Larger goals need to be broken down into smaller goals to be achieved faster;

• Flexible: Goals should be flexible and modifiable in the face of unforeseen situations.

During this phase, you should define the scope of the project and think about developing a project management plan. Cost estimates, quality, available resources, and realistic timeframes are some of the things to consider in this phase. The project plan should also include items such as baseline or performance metrics. These should be determined by the scope, schedule and cost of the project. The baseline is required to detect the deviation of the project from the main path.

In this phase of the project, you need to clearly define the roles and responsibilities so that each executor knows what tasks they will have. Some of the documents that the project manager must prepare in this phase to prevent the project from deviating are:

• Project Scope Statement: This is a document that defines business needs, project benefits, goals, deliverables, and key dates. The project scope statement can be changed during the project, but any changes should only be made with the approval of the project manager and sponsor;

Failure Structure (WBS): In this structure, the project scope is visually broken down into more controllable parts. When creating a work breakdown structure, be careful that work packages do not exceed 10 days;

• Timelines: Identify high-level goals to be achieved during the project and enter them in the Gantt chart;

Gantt Chart: This chart is a visual timeline that allows you to plan tasks and provide an overview of the project time frame. It is also a good idea to ask team members for their views on assigned tasks;

• Communication plan: This plan is very important, especially if the project involves external stakeholders. Decide on communication channels and messaging methods. It is also important to make a schedule for what to do with team members, given what needs to be delivered on time;

• Risk Management Plan: You must identify all predictable risks. The most common risks in project management are: unrealistic time and cost estimates, customer review cycle, lack of budget, changing needs and non-committal forces.